Corus consists of a lightweight daemon implemented in Java. A Corus daemon is installed on a given host, and executes/monitors processes on that host.

Multiple Corus daemons are grouped by domain (or cluster), which allows performing clustered application deployment and process execution. A command-line client is provided in order to control multiple Corus daemons remotely, in a centralized manner.

As of version 5, Corus supports integration with Docker. The fundamentals of Corus' architecture are the same, whether deploying with Docker apps or not.

The Corus Daemon

Corus is, at the core, a daemon process running on a given host, managing the applications deployed to it. Many such Corus instances can be grouped together into so-called domains or clusters, thereby allowing for the centralized management of application processes across multiple hosts. Indeed, all Corus instances that are part of the same domain “know” each other, and can be administered collectively, as one.

The Command-Line Interface

To administer either a single Corus instance or a whole domain, one uses the Corus command-line interface (the CLI). The CLI is used to connect to a given Corus instance and send commands to either that single instance or to all instances in the domain. Most notably, the commands that are supported allow:

  • Deploying and undeploying application distributions.
  • Starting application processes from these distributions.
  • Terminating application processes.
  • Perform various management tasks such as obtaining the list of currently running processes, or the status data of running processes

The CLI has a Linux-like feel to it: in a few cases it adapts common Unix/Linux commands (ps, ls, kill...) to the Corus context.

Distributions and Processes

Corus is used to manage the distribution of applications, and the execution of application processes. Applications are deployed into Corus as "distributions", which consist of zip files containing application resources: classes, libraries, configuration files, etc.

Corus distributions are no different than plain-vanilla distributions as they are traditionnally understood: a collection of files among which is normally one executable, zipped in an archive that is given to end-users. Corus executes an application the same way human beings do: by invoking a command-line that boostraps an executable.

Currently, Corus supports the startup of standalone Java applications (that is, it is capable of invoking the execution of Java classes with a main method), as well as Docker-based application. Applications meant for deployment with Corus are expected to be packaged with so-called Corus descriptor.

For the sake of clarity, we are providing such a descriptor below:

<distribution name="jetty" version="1.0" xmlns="">
  <process  name="server" 
    <java mainClass="org.sapia.corus.sample.jetty.JettyServer"
          profile="dev" vmType="server">
      <xoption  name="ms" value="16M" />
    <java mainClass="org.sapia.corus.sample.jetty.JettyServer"
          profile="prod" vmType="server">
      <xoption  name="ms" value="128M" />

As can be seen, a distribution has a name, a version, and specifies one to many processes, each with a name. It is quite clear in the above case that the process being declared corresponds to a Java application: one JVM process will be started by Corus when execution of the application is invoked.

Once a process is started by a Corus daemon (typically following a command initiated by an administrator using the CLI), it maintains a link with that daemon, as specified by the Corus Interoperability Protocol. The protocol describes how a Corus instance and the processes that it starts interact. Among other interactions, the most notable is the heartbeat that processes must provide: if a Corus instance has not received a heartbeat from a process it manages after a predefined amount of time, Corus automatically attempts restarting it.

To be more concise here are the most important interactions:

  • Heartbeat: initiated by a process, allows Corus to provide a high-availability service. A Corus daemon will attempt restarting a crash process automatically.
  • Status: processes may send status information to Corus, which makes that status available to administrators, through the command-line.
  • Kill: processes managed by Corus can be killed. A “kill” event is sent to the targeted processes, which allows applications to terminate gracefully. Such an event can be triggered by many source:
    • An adminisrator invokes the kill command using the CLI.
    • The Corus daemon orders the termination of a process after deeming it unresponsive.
    • The process itself has requested a restart.

The Corus Interoperability Protocol has been implemented has a Java agent that is transparently activated in JVMs that are started by Corus. Upon startup, the agent starts polling the Corus server at a predefined interval to provide its heartbeat, status, and to receive events (such as “kill”).


As stated multiples times throughout the Corus web site, Corus does not force a programming model onto the developer. In fact, an application may be completely oblivious to the fact that it is managed by Corus. Currently, Corus supports deploying and starting stand-alone Java applications, that is: applications that are bootstrapped by a Java class with a static main method, and applications deployed as Docker images.

For straight JVM-based applications, the only thing that is relevant for applications to be aware of is that when it starts a process, Corus passes properties to the command-line (which are in fact JVM properties passed using the -Dname=value notation). The properties can be recuperated in Java using System.getProperty(...).

Furthermore, JVM-based applications can add in their dependencies a jar file consisting of a library that allows "hooking up" to the Java agent that implements the Corus Interoperability Protocol and resides within the application's JVM. The code snippet below illustrates how an application can hook up to Corus via that library and provide status information (see the advanced section for more details):

import org.sapia.corus.interop.Context;
import org.sapia.corus.interop.Param;
import org.sapia.corus.interop.Status;
import org.sapia.corus.interop.api.InteropLink;
import org.sapia.corus.interop.api.StatusRequestListener;


  public void onStatus(Status status) {
    Context context = new Context("org.sapia.corus.sample.jetty");
    context.addParam(createParam("dispatched", stats.getDispatched()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("dispatchedActive", stats.getDispatchedActive()));
    context.addParam(createParam("dispatchedActiveMax", stats.getDispatchedActiveMax()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("dispatchedTimeMax", stats.getDispatchedTimeMax()));
    context.addParam(createParam("dispatchedTimeTotal", stats.getDispatchedTimeTotal()));
    context.addParam(createParam("dispatchedTimeMean", stats.getDispatchedTimeMean()));
    context.addParam(createParam("requests", stats.getRequests()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("requestsActive", stats.getRequestsActive()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("requestsActiveMax", stats.getRequestsActiveMax()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("requestsTimeMax", stats.getRequestTimeMax()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("requestsTimeMean", stats.getRequestTimeMean()));
    context.addParam(createParam("requestsTimeTotal", stats.getRequestTimeTotal()));
    context.addParam(createParam("suspends", stats.getSuspends()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("suspendsActive", stats.getSuspendsActive()));        
    context.addParam(createParam("suspendsActiveMax", stats.getSuspendsActiveMax()));  
  private Param createParam(String name, Object value){
    return new Param(name, value.toString());


If the JVM has not been started by Corus, the code above will NOT cause any undesirable side-effects at runtime. Thus, there is no need to remove the dependency.

We are explaining in further details application programming considerations in the tutorials and in the Corus manual. But really, there is not much more to it than this.